北京快3开奖结果查询

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橡胶加工工艺
2015-08-18 09:58:55      点击:

1 综述
橡胶制品的主要原料是生胶、各种配合剂、以及作为骨架材料的纤维和金属材料,橡胶制品的基本生产工艺过程包括塑炼、混炼、压延、压出、成型、硫化6个基本工序。
橡胶的加工工艺过程主要是解决塑性和弹性矛盾的过程,通过各种加工手段,使得弹性的橡胶变成具有塑性的塑炼胶,在加入各种配合剂制成半成品,然后通过硫化是具有塑性的半成品又变成弹性高、物理机械性能好的橡胶制品。

2 XIANGJIAOJIAGONGGONGYI

2.1SULIANGONGYI

SHENGJIAOSULIANSHITONGGUOJIXIEYINGLI、RE、YANGHUOJIARUMOUXIEHUAXUESHIJIDENGFANGFA,SHISHENGJIAOYOUQIANGRENDEDANXINGZHUANGTAIZHUANBIANWEIROURUAN、BIANYUJIAGONGDESUXINGZHUANGTAIDEGUOCHENG。

北京快3开奖结果查询SHENGJIAOSULIANDEMUDESHIJIANGDITADEDANXING,ZENGJIAKESUXING,BINGHUODESHIDANGDELIUDONGXING,YIMANZUHUNLIAN、YAYAN、YACHU、CHENGXING、LIUHUAYIJIJIAOJIANGZHIZAO、HAIMIANJIAOZHIZAODENGGEZHONGJIAGONGGONGYIGUOCHENGDEYAOQIU。

ZHANGWOHAOSHIDANGDESULIANKESUDU,DUIXIANGJIAOZHIPINDEJIAGONGHECHENGPINZHILIANGSHIZHIGUANZHONGYAODE。ZAIMANZUJIAGONGGONGYIYAOQIUDEQIANTIXIAYINGJINKENENGJIANGDIKESUDU。SUIZHEHENGZHANDUXIANGJIAO、DIZHANDUXIANGJIAODECHUXIAN,YOUDEXIANGJIAOYIJINGBUXUYAOSULIANERZHIJIEJINXINGHUNLIAN。

北京快3开奖结果查询ZAIXIANGJIAOGONGYEZHONG,ZUICHANGYONGDESULIANFANGFAYOUJIXIESULIANFAHEHUAXUESULIANFA。JIXIESULIANFASUOYONGDEZHUYAOSHEBEISHIKAIFANGSHILIANJIAOJI、MIBISHILIANJIAOJIHELUOGANSULIANJI。HUAXUESULIANFASHIZAIJIXIESULIANGUOCHENGZHONGJIARUHUAXUEYAOPINLAITIGAOSULIANXIAOGUODEFANGFA。

北京快3开奖结果查询KAILIANJISULIANSHIWENDUYIBANZAI80℃YIXIA,SHUYUDIWENJIXIEHUNLIANFANGFA。MILIANJIHELUOGANHUNLIANJIDEPAIJIAOWENDUZAI120℃YISHANG,SHENZHIGAODA160-180℃,SHUYUGAOWENJIXIEHUNLIAN。

SHENGJIAOZAIHUNLIANZHIQIANXUYAOYUXIANJINGGUOHONGJIAO、QIEJIAO、XUANJIAOHEPOJIAODENGCHULICAINENGSULIAN。

JIZHONGJIAODESULIANTEXING:

TIANRANXIANGJIAOYONGKAILIANJISULIANSHI,GUNTONGWENDUWEI30-40℃,SHIJIANYUEWEI15-20min;CAIYONGMILIANJISULIANDANGWENDUDADAO120℃YISHANGSHI,SHIJIANYUEWEI3-5min。

丁苯橡胶的门尼粘度多在35-60之间,因此,丁苯橡胶也可不用塑炼,但是经过塑炼后可以提高配合机的分散性
顺丁橡胶具有冷流性,缺乏塑炼效果。顺丁胶的门尼粘度较低,可不用塑炼。

北京快3开奖结果查询LVDINGXIANGJIAODESUXINGDA,SULIANQIANKEBOTONG3-5CI,BOTONGWENDUZAI30-40℃。

YIBINGXIANGJIAODEFENZIZHULIANSHIBAOHEJIEGOU,SULIANNANYIYINQIFENZIDELIEJIE,YINCIYAOXUANZEMENNIZHANDUDIDEPINZHONGERBUYONGSULIAN。

DINGJINGXIANGJIAOKESUDUXIAO,RENXINGDA,SULIANSHISHENGREDA。KAILIANSHIYAOCAIYONGDIWEN40℃YIXIA、XIAOGUNJU、DIRONGLIANGYIJIFENDUANSULIAN,ZHEIYANGKEYISHOUDAOJIAOHAODEXIAOGUO。

2.2HUNLIANGONGYI

HUNLIANSHIZHIZAILIANJIAOJISHANGJIANGGEZHONGPEIHEJIJUNYUNDEHUNDAOSHENGJIAOZHONGDEGUOCHENG。HUNLIANDEZHILIANGSHIDUIJIAOLIAODEJINYIBUJIAGONGHECHENGPINDEZHILIANGYOUZHEJUEDINGXINGDEYINGXIANG,JISHIPEIFANGHENHAODEJIAOLIAO,RU GUOHUNLIANBUHAO,YEJIUHUICHUXIANPEIHEJIFENSANBUJUN,JIAOLIAOKESUDUGUOGAOHUOGUODI,YIJIAOSHAO、PENSHUANGDENG,SHIYAYAN、YACHU、TUJIAOHELIUHUADENGGONGYIBUNENGZHENGCHANGJINXING,ERQIEHAIHUIDAOZHIZHIPINXINGNENGXIA JIANG。

北京快3开奖结果查询HUNLIANFANGFATONGCHANGFENWEIKAILIANJIHUNLIANHEMILIANJIHUNLIANLIANGZHONG。ZHEILIANGZHONGFANGFADOUSHIJIANXIESHIHUNLIAN,ZHEISHIMUQIANZUIGUANGFANDEFANGFA。

KAILIANJIDEHUNHEGUOCHENGFENWEISANGEJIEDUAN,JIBAOGUN(JIARUSHENGJIAODERUANHUAJIEDUAN)、CHIFEN(JIARUFENJIDEHUNHEJIEDUAN)HEFANLIAN(CHIFENHOUSHISHENGJIAOHEPEIHEJIJUNDADAOJUNYUNFENSANDEJIEDUAN)。

北京快3开奖结果查询KAILIANJIHUNJIAOYIJIAOLIAOZHONGLEI、YONGTU、XINGNENGYAOQIUBUTONG,GONGYITIAOJIANYEBUTONG。HUNLIANZHONGYAOZHUYIJIAJIAOLIANG、JIALIAOSHUNXU、GUNJU、GUNWEN、HUNLIANSHIJIAN、GUNTONGDEZHUANSUHESUBIDENGGEZHONGYINSU。JIBUNENGHUNLIANBUZU,YOUBUNENGGUOLIAN。

北京快3开奖结果查询MILIANJIHUNLIANFENWEISANGEJIEDUAN,JISHIRUN、FENSANHENIELIAN、MILIANJIHUNLIANSHIZAIGAOWENJIAYAXIAJINXINGDE。CAOZUOFANGFAYIBANFENWEIYIDUANHUNLIANFAHELIANGDUANHUNLIANFA。

北京快3开奖结果查询YIDUANHUNLIANFASHIZHIJINGMILIANJIYICIWANCHENGHUNLIAN,RANHOUYAPIANDEHUNLIANJIAODEFANGFA。TASHIYONGYUQUANTIANRANXIANGJIAOHUOCHANYOUHECHENGXIANGJIAOBUCHAOGUO50%DEJIAOLIAO,ZAIYIDUANHUNLIANCAOZUOZHONG,CHANGCAIYONG FENPIZHUBUJIALIAOFA,WEISHIJIAOLIAOBUZHIYUJULIESHENGGAO,YIBANCAIYONGMANSUMILIANJI,YEKEYICAIYONGSHUANGSUMILIANJI,JIARULIUHUANGSHIDEWENDUBIXUDIYU100℃。QIJIALIAOSHUNXUWEISHENGJIAO—XIAOLIAO—BUQIANG JI—TIANCHONGJI—YOULEIRUANHUAJI—PAILIAO—LENGQUE—JIALIUHUANGJICHAOCUJINJI。

LIANGDUANHUNLIANFASHIZHILIANGCITONGGUOMILIANJIHUNLIANYAPIANZHICHENGHUNLIANJIAODEFANGFA。ZHEIZHONGFANGFASHIYONGYUHECHENGXIANGJIAOHANLIANGCHAOGUO50%DEJIAOLIAO,KEYIBIMIANYIDUANHUNLIANFAGUOCHENGZHONGHUNLIANSHIJIANZHANG、JIAO LIAOWENDUGAODEQUEDIAN。DIYIJIEDUANHUNLIANYUYIDUANHUNLIANFAYIYANG,ZHISHIBUJIALIUHUAHEHUOXINGDADECUJINJI,YIDUANHUNLIANWANHOUXIAPIANLENGQUE,TINGFANGYIDINGDESHIJIAN,RANHOUZAIJINXINGDIERDUANHUNLIAN。HUNLIANJUNYUN HOUPAILIAODAOYAPIANJISHANGZAIJIALIUHUAJI,FANLIANHOUXIAPIAN。FENDUANHUNLIANFAMEICILIANJIAOSHIJIANJIAODUAN,HUNLIANWENDUJIAODI,PEIHEJIFENSANGENGJUNYUN,JIAOLIAOZHILIANGGAO。

2.3YAYANGONGYI

YAYANSHIJIANGHUNLIANJIAOZAIYAYANJISHANGZHICHENGJIAOPIANHUOYUGUJIACAILIAOZHICHENGJIAOBUBANCHENGPINDEGONGYIGUOCHENG,TABAOKUOYAPIAN、TIEHE、YAXINGHEFANGZHIWUGUAJIAODENGZUOYE。

YAYANGONGYIDEZHUYAOSHEBEISHIYAYANJI,YAYANJIYIBANYOUGONGZUOGUNTONG、JIJIA、JIZUO、CHUANDONGZHUANGZHI、DIAOSUHEDIAOJUZHUANGZHI、GUNTONGJIAREHELENGQUEZHUANGZHI、RUNHUAXITONGHEJINJITINGCHEZHUANGZHI。YAYAN JIDEZHONGLEIHENDUO,GONGZUOGUNTONGYOULIANGGE、SANGE、SIGEBUDENG,PAILIEXINGSHILIANGGUNYOULISHIHEWOSHI;SANGUNYOUZHILISHI、ΓXINGHESANJIAOXING;SIGUNYOUΓXING、LXING、ZXINGHESXINGDENGDUOZHONG。ANGONGYIYONG TULAIFENZHUYAOYOUYAPIANYAYANJI(YONGYUYAYANJIAOPIANHUOFANGZHIWUTIEJIAO,DADUOSHUSANGUNHUOSIGUN,GEGUNSUDUBUTONG)、CAJIAOYAYANJI(YONGYUFANGZHIWUDECAJIAO,SANGUN,GEGUNYOUYIDINGDESUBI,ZHONGGUNSU DUDA。JIEZHUSUBICARUFANGZHIWUZHONG)、TONGYONGYAYANJI(YOUCHENGWANNENGYAYANJI,JIANYOUYAPIANHECAJIAOGONGNENG、SANGUNHUOSIGUN,KEDIAOSUBI)、YAXINGYAYANJI、TIEHEYAYANJIHEGANGSIYAYANJI。

YAYANGUOCHENGYIBANBAOKUOYIXIAGONGXU:HUNLIANJIAODEYUREHEGONGJIAO;FANGZHIWUDEDAOKAIHEGANZAO(YOUSHIHAIYOUJINJIAO)

北京快3开奖结果查询JIAOLIAOZAISIGUNHUOSANGUNYAYANJISHANGDEYAPIANHUOZAIFANGZHIWUSHANGGUAJIAOYIJIYAYANBANCHENGPINDELENGQUE、JUANQU、JIEDUAN、FANGZHIDENG。

北京快3开奖结果查询ZAIJINXINGYAYANQIAN,XUYAODUIJIAOLIAOHEFANGZHIWUJINXINGYUJIAGONG,JIAOLIAOJINRUYAYANJIZHIQIAN,XUYAOXIANJIANGQIZAIRELIANJISHANGFANLIAN,ZHEIYIGONGYIWEIRELIANHUOCHENGYURE,QIMUDESHITIGAOJIAOLIAODEHUNLIAN JUNYUNXING,JINYIBUZENGJIAKESUXING,TIGAOWENDU,ZENGDAKESUXING。WEILETIGAOJIAOLIAOHEFANGZHIWUDEZHANHEXINGNENG,BAOZHENGYAYANZHILIANG,XUYAODUIZHIWUJINXINGHONGGAN,HANSHUILVKONGZHIZAI1-2%,HANSHUILIANG DI,ZHIWUBIANYING,YAYANZHONGYISUNHUAI,HANSHUILIANGGAO,ZHANFULICHA。

JIZHONGCHANGJIANDEXIANGJIAODEYAYANXINGNENG TIANRANXIANGJIAORESUXINGDA,SHOUSUOLVXIAO,YAYANRONGYI,YIZHANFUREGUN,YINGKONGZHIGEGUNWENCHA,YIBIANJIAOPIANSHUNLIZHUANYI;DINGBENXIANGJIAORESUXINGXIAO,SHOUSUOLVDA,YINCIYONGYUYAYANDEJIAOLIAOYAOCHONGFENSULIAN。YOU YUDINGBENXIANGJIAODUIYAYANDEREMINXINGHENXIANZHU,YAYANWENDUYINGDIYUTIANRANXIANGJIAO,GEGUNWENCHAYOUGAODAODI;LVDINGXIANGJIAOZAI75-95℃YIZHANGUN,NANYUYAYAN,YINGSHIYONGDIWENFAHUOGAOWENFA,YAYANYAOXUN SULENGQUE,CHANYOUSHILA、YINGZHISUANKEYIJIANSHAOZHANGUNXIANXIANG;YIBINGXIANGJIAOYAYANXINGNENGLIANGHAO,KEYIZAIGUANGFANDEWENDUFANWEINEILIANXUCAOZUO,WENDUGUODISHIJIAOLIAOSHOUSUOXINGDA,YICHANSHENGQIPAO;DINGJINGXIANGJIAORESU XINGXIAO,SHOUSUOXINGDA,ZAIJIAOLIAOZHONGJIARUTIANCHONGJIHUORUANHUAJIKEJIANSHAOSHOUSUOLV,DANGTIANCHONGJIZHONGLIANGZHANSHENGJIAOZHONGLIANGDE50%YISHANGSHI,CAINENGDEDAOBIAOMIANGUANGHUADEJIAOPIAN,DINGJINGXIANGJIAOZHANXINGXIAOYIZHANLENGGUN。

2.4YACHUGONGYI

YACHUGONGYISHITONGGUOYACHUJIJITONGTONGBIHELUOGANJIANDEZUOYONG,SHIJIAOLIAODADAOJIYAHECHUBUZAOXINGDEMUDE,YACHUGONGYIYECHENGWEIJICHUGONGYI。

YACHUGONGYIDEZHUYAOSHEBEISHIYACHUJI。

北京快3开奖结果查询JIZHONGXIANGJIAODEYACHUTEXING:TIANRANXIANGJIAOYACHUSUDUKUAI,BANCHENGPINSHOUSUOLVXIAO。JISHENWENDU50-60℃,JITOU70-80℃,KOUXING80-90℃;DINGBENXIANGJIAOYACHUSUDUMAN,YA SUOBIANXINGDA,BIAOMIANCUCAO,JISHENWENDU50-70℃,JITOUWENDU70-80℃,KOUXINGWENDU100-105℃;LVDINGXIANGJIAOYACHUQIANBUYONGCHONGFENRELIAN,JISHENWENDU50℃,JITOU℃,KOU XING70℃;YIBINGXIANGJIAOYACHUSUDUKUAI、SHOUSUOLVXIAO,JISHENWENDU60-70℃,JITOUWENDU80-130℃,KOUXING90-140℃。DINGJINGXIANGJIAOYACHUXINGNENGCHA,YACHUSHIYINGCHONGFENRELIAN。 JISHENWENDU50-60℃,JITOUWENDU70-80℃。

2.5ZHUSHEGONGYI

橡胶注射成型工艺是一种把胶料直接从机筒注入模性硫化的生产方法。包括喂料、塑化、注射、保压、硫化、出模等几个过程。注射硫化的最大特点是内层和外层得胶料温度比较均匀一致,硫化速度快,可加工大多数模压制品。
北京快3开奖结果查询 橡胶注射成型的设备是橡胶注射成型硫化机。

2.6YAZHUGONGYI

北京快3开奖结果查询YAZHUFAYOUCHENGWEICHUANDIMOFAHUOYIMOFA。ZHEIZHONGFANGFASHIJIANGJIAOLIAOZHUANGZAIYAZHUJIDESAITONGNEI,ZAIJIAYAXIAJIANGJIAOLIAOZHURUMOQIANGLIUHUA。YUZHUSHECHENGXINGFAXIANGSI。RUGUJIAYOUFENGDENGYONGCIFASHENGCHANYIBIANSHAO,CHANPINZHILIANGHAO。

2.7LIUHUAGONGYI

ZAOXIAN,TIANRANXIANGJIAODEZHUYAOYONGTUZHISHIZUOCAZIXIANGPI;HOULAICAIYONGYUZHIZAOXIAOXIANGJIAOGUAN。ZHIDAO1823NIAN,YINGGUOHUAXUEJIAMAIJINTUOSHENCAIFAMINGJIANGXIANGJIAORONGJIEZAIMEIJIAOYOUZHONGRANHOUTUZAIBUSHANG ZUOCHENGFANGSHUIBU,KEYIYONGLAIZHIZAOYUYIHEYUXUE。DANSHI,ZHEIZHONGYUYIHEYUXUEYIDAOXIATIANJIURONGHUA,YIDAODONGTIANBIANBIANDEYOUYINGYOUCUI。WEILEKEFUZHEIYIQUEDIAN,DANGSHIXUDUORENDOUZAIXIANGBANFA。MEIGUOFAMING JIACHALI•GUDEYIERYEZAIJINXINGXIANGJIAOGAIXINGDESHIYAN,TABATIANRANXIANGJIAOHELIUHUANGFANGZAIYIQIJIARE,XIWANGNENGHUODEYIZHONGYINIANSIJIZAISUOYOUWENDUXIADOUBAOCHIGANZAOQIEFUYOUDANXINGDEWUZHI。ZHIDAO 1839NIAN2YUETACAIHUODECHENGGONG。YITIANTABAXIANGJIAO、LIUHUANGHESONGJIEYOUHUNRONGZAIYIQIDAORUGUOZHONG(LIUHUANGJINSHIYONGLAIRANSEDE),BUXIAOXINGUOZHONGDEHUNHEWUJIANDAOLEZHUOREDEHUOLUSHANG。LINGTACHIJINGDE SHI,HUNHEWULUORUHUOZHONGHOUBINGWEIRONGHUA,ERSHIBAOCHIYUANYANGBEISHAOJIAOLE,LUZHONGCANLIUDEWEIWANQUANSHAOJIAODEHUNHEWUZEFUYOUDANXING。TABAJIANSHANGQUDEDONGXICONGLUZISHANGBOLEXIALAI,ZHEICAIFAXIANTAYIJINGZHIBEI LETAXIANGYAODEYOUDANXINGDEXIANGJIAO。JINGGUOBUDUANGAIJIN,TAZHONGYUZAI1844NIANFAMINGLEXIANGJIAOLIUHUAJISHU。

北京快3开奖结果查询ZAIXIANGJIAOZHIPINSHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,LIUHUASHIZUIHOUYIDAOJIAGONGGONGXU。LIUHUASHIJIAOLIAOZAIYIDINGTIAOJIANXIA,XIANGJIAODAFENZIYOUXIANXINGJIEGOUZHUANBIANWEIWANGZHUANGJIEGOUDEJIAOLIANGUOCHENG。LIUHUAFANGFAYOULENGLIUHUA、SHIWENLIUHUAHERELIUHUASANZHONG。DADUOSHUXIANGJIAOZHIPINCAIYONGRELIUHUA。RELIUHUADESHEBEIYOULIUHUAGUAN、PINGBANLIUHUAJIDENG。

2.8QITASHENGCHANGONGYI

XIANGJIAOZHIPINDESHENGCHANGONGYIHAIYOUJINZIFA、TUGUAFA、PENTUFA、JIAOSUFADENG。

3 XIANGJIAOPEIFANGSHEJI

3.1XIANGJIAODELIUHUA(JIAOLIAN)

交联是橡胶高弹性的基础,其特点是在一个橡胶分子链上仅形成少数几处交联点,因此不会影响橡胶分子链段的运动。
橡胶的硫化体系较多,常见的有:硫黄硫化体系、过氧化物硫化体系、树脂硫化体系、氧化物硫化体系等。

3.1.1LIUHUANGLIUHUATIXI

ZHUYAOSHIYINGYUERXILEIXIANGJIAO,QILIUHUAHUOXINGDIANSHIZAISHUANGJIANPANGBIANDEαQINGYUANZI。

ZUCHENG:

硫黄
活性剂:氧化锌,硬脂酸
促进剂:噻唑类(DM,M),次磺酰胺类(CZ,NOBS),秋兰姆类(TETD,TMTM,TMTD),胍(D)
表1硫黄硫化体系分类

硫化体系

硫黄/促进剂(S/A)比

交联键组成

性能特点

普通硫黄硫化体系

>1

以多硫键为主

动态疲劳性能好;老化性能差

半有效硫黄硫化体系(Semi-EV

≈1

以单硫键和双硫键为主

老化性能好;压缩永久变形小;无硫化返原

有效硫黄硫化体系(EV

<<1

-

-

北京快3开奖结果查询 3.1.2过氧化物硫化体系-自由基机理

1 常见的过氧化物有:DCP(二枯基过氧化物)、BPO、DCBP、双2,5
北京快3开奖结果查询 2 助交联剂:抑制聚合难自由基无用的副反应。如TAIC,TAC,HVA-2

3 过氧化物硫化橡胶性能特点:老化性能好,压缩永久变形小,制品透明性好。
表 2 过氧化物的交联效率

橡胶品种

交联效率

原因

NR

1

自由基的活性主要与甲基的超共轭作用有关,同时位阻较大,无法出笼格 
BR

SBR

10-50

脱氢的速度为NR1/3,但活性高,位阻小,能较快地与双键加成,形成交联键和新自由基

NBR

>1

腈基影响交联作用

PEEPDM

1

-

EPR

0.4

-

IIR

0

-

北京快3开奖结果查询 3.1.3氧化物硫化体系

ZHEISHIHANLUSUXIANGJIAODEZHUYAOLIUHUAJI。TONGCHANGYOUYANGHUAXIN/YANGHUAMEI(5/4)、YANGHUAQIANHUOSIYANGHUASANQIAN(10-20,NAISHUIZHIPIN)

3.2XIANGJIAODETIANLIAO

WEIJIATIANLIAODEXIANGJIAO,LIXUEXINGNENGHEGONGYIXINGNENGJUNJIAOCHA,WUFASHIYONG。

3.2.1ZUOYONG

·补强性:拉伸强度,撕裂强度,耐磨性
·加工性能
·降低成本

3.2.2TIANLIAODEJIEGOU

3.2.2.1LIJING

一般来说,粒径越小,强度越高。
表 3 常用补强剂及填充剂的粒径范围(mμ)

填料名称

缩写

料径范围

槽黑

-

23-30

高耐磨炭黑

HAF

26-35

半补强炭黑

SRF

60-130

气相法白炭黑 水合二氧化硅

-

10-25

沉淀法白炭黑

-

10-40

氧化锌

ZnO

100-500

轻质碳酸钙

CaCO3

1000-3000

超细碳酸钙

-

25-100

硬质陶土

-

90% < 1000

普通滑石粉

TALC

5000-20000

北京快3开奖结果查询 3.2.2.2结构

LIZIXINGZHUANGJINEIBUJIEGOU(XIYOUZHIFA,DBP)。YIBANXIYOUZHIYUEDA,JIEGOUXINGYUEQIANG,GAISHANXINGNENGYUEMINGXIAN。

北京快3开奖结果查询3.2.2.3BIBIAOMIANJI

北京快3开奖结果查询LIZIXINGZHUANG(BETFA,CATBFA)。BIBIAOMIANJIYUEDA,QIANGDUYUEGAO。

3.2.2.4HUAXUEJIEGOU

北京快3开奖结果查询FANYINGXING(PHZHIBIAOSHI)。RUTANHEIBIAOMIANDESUOJI、BAITANHEIHEPUTONGQIANSETIANLIAOBIAOMIANDEQIANGJIDENG,SUANXINGTIANLIAOCHANGYINGXIANGXIANGJIAODELIUHUA,YINCIXUJIARUHUOXINGJI,XIAOCHUSUANXING。

北京快3开奖结果查询3.2.2.5TIANLIAODECHULIFANGFA

北京快3开奖结果查询TIANLIAOBIAOMIANYIBANWEIQINSHUIXINGDE,ERJUHEWUSHIZENGSHUIDE,LIANGZHEXIANGRONGXINGJIAOCHA,BIXUJINXINGBIAOMIANCHULI。

3.2.2.6BIAOMIANHUOXINGJI

(1) 结构:有机化合物,具有不对称的分子结构,由亲水和疏水两部分基团组成。
(2) 亲水部分:-OH,-COOH,-NH2,-NO2,-SH
(3) 疏水部分:长链式、苯环式或烃类

3.2.2.7OULIANJI

(1) 分类:硅烷,钛酸酯、铝酸酯、高分子偶联剂等
(2) 结构特点:亲水部分与表面活性剂相似,但疏水部分能与聚合物形成化学结合或物理缠结。
(3) 对性能的影响:低分子偶联剂通常在降低粘度的同时,提高力学性能;高分子偶联剂则在大幅度提高力学性能的同时,增加体系的粘度,这是由于分子之间作用力增强的缘故。

3.3RUANHUAJIHEZENGSUJI

3.3.1RUANHUAJIDEZUOYONG

(1) 降低体系的粘度,增加流动性,降低硫化橡胶的硬度;
(2) 改善粘着性能;
(3) 有助于填料的分散;
(4) 便于压出和成型。

3.3.2CHANGJIANPINZHONG

(1) 操作油(软化剂,用量较大):分子量300-600的烃类或芳香烃类(如机油,链烷烃油,芳香烃油,石蜡油等)
北京快3开奖结果查询 (2) 极性的酯类(在非极性橡胶中使用,称为增塑剂,其特点为脆性温度、且用量较少):低分子酯类(DOP,DBP,DOS)和高分子酯类(己二酸乙二醇酯)

3.3.3XUANZEYUANZE

北京快3开奖结果查询(1) RELIXUE(ZHUYAOYINSU):ZIYOUNENGΔF=ΔH(REHAN) - TΔS(SHANGBIAN)。YIBANHUNHEGUOCHENGZHONG,ZIYOUDUZENGJIA,ΔS>0;ΔH > 0(XIRE),JINKENENGXIAO。

(2) RONGDUCANSHU:YONGHildebrandFANGCHENGJINXINGPANDUAN。

δ1YUδ2YUEJIEJIN,ΔHYUEXIAO。

JIXINGXIANGJIAO——JIXINGRUANHUAJI;FEIJIXINGXIANGJIAO——FEIJIXINGRUANHUAJI

(3) 溶剂化作用(次要因素):一般认为,橡胶的双键有一定的亲核性,增塑剂酯类有亲电性,通过亲电-亲核作用增加了两者的界面强度,相容性增加,不过这种亲电 -亲核作用较弱,因此一般用量不宜过大(5-10phr)。如NR与DBP,NBR与芳烃油的相容性,SBR、BR与NR的差异,
(4) CR的溶剂选择原则

3.4XIANGJIAODEFANGHUTIXI

老化是指一切使橡胶性能劣化的过程。如O2,O3,热,光,疲劳,力,催化剂,化学介质等,为了考察这些影响因素,设计了许多试验方法。
氧弹试验 O2
热氧老化试验 O2,热
光老化试验 光(户外,室内,人造光)
臭氧老化试验 O3
疲劳试验 力,疲劳
DSC、TG 热氧化,O2,空气;热降解,N2

3.4.1FENLEI

WULI:QIANYI、GEJUEYANGDEZUOYONG

防 老 剂
化学:无污染型(酚类,1010,1076;硫化二丙酸酯(DLTP,DSTP);亚磷酸酯,168);污染型(胺类,RD,D,A)
防护体系 对苯二胺类(4010,4010NA)
抗臭氧剂
线形碳氢化合物(粗晶蜡,微晶蜡)
紫外线剂(橡胶不常用、炭黑的作用)
金属离子钝化剂

3.4.2FANYINGJILI

(1) LIANYINFA

E = 0

(2) LIANZENGZHANG

E = 4-9kcal/mol
E = 0kcal/mol
北京快3开奖结果查询 E = 30kcal/mol

ERJINSHULIZIZECUIHUAROOHDEFENJIE。

(3) LIANZHONGZHI

3.5 PEIFANGSHEJIYULIUHUAXIANGJIAOWUXINGDEGUANXI

3.5.1LASHENQIANGDU

LASHENQIANGDUSHIBIAOZHENGZHIPINNENGGOUDIKANGLASHENPOHUAIDEJIXIANNENGLI。YINGXIANGXIANGJIAOLASHENQIANGDUDEZHUYAOYINSUYOU:DAFENZILIANDEZHUJIAJIAN、FENZIJIANLIYIJIGAOFENZILIANROUXING。

YI LASHENQIANGDUYUXIANGJIAOJIEGOUDEGUANXI

(1) 分子间作用力大,如极性和刚性基团等;
(2) 分子量增大,范德华力增大,链段不易滑动,相当于分子间形成了物理交联点,因此随分子量增大,拉伸强度增高,到一定程度时达到平衡;
(3) 分子的微观结构,如顺式和反式结构的影响;
(4) 结晶和取向

ER LASHENQIANGDUYULIUHUATIXIDEGUANXI

(1) 交联密度:有一极大值。
北京快3开奖结果查询 (2) 交联键类型:随交联键能增加,拉伸强度减小;多硫键具有较高的拉伸强度,因为弱键在应力状态下能起到释放应力的作用,减轻应力集中的程度,使交联网能均匀地承受较大的应力。对于能产生结晶的NR等,交联弱键的早期断裂,还有利于主链的定向结晶。

SAN LASHENQIANGDUYUTIANLIAODEGUANXI

DALIANGDESHIYANBIAOMING:LIJINGYUEXIAO,BIBIAOMIANJIYUEDA,BIAOMIANHUOXINGYUEDA,JIEGOUXINGYUEGAO,BUQIANGDEXIAOGUOYUEHAO。TONGSHISUITIANLIAOYONGLIANGZENGJIA,YOUZUIDAZHI,QIDAXIAOSHOUXIANGJIAOPINZHONGHETIANLIAOLEIXINGDEYINGXIANG。

北京快3开奖结果查询SI LASHENQIANGDUYURUANHUAJIDEGUANXI

北京快3开奖结果查询RUANHUAJIDEJIARUHUISUNSHILASHENQIANGDU,QIEYURUANHUAJIYUXIANGJIAODEXIANGRONGXINGYOUGUAN。

3.5.2SILIEQIANGDU

XIANGJIAODESILIESHIYOUYUCAILIAOZHONGDELIEWENHUOLIEKOUSHOULISHIXUNSUKUODAERDAOZHIPOHUAIDEXIANXIANG,YIBANSHIYANZHEFENZILIANSHUMUZUIXIAO,JIZULIZUIXIAODETUJINGFAZHAN。ZHUYAOYUXIANGJIAOYINGLI-YINGBIANQUXIANDEXINGZHUANGHEZHANDANXINGYOUGUAN。YUXIANGJIAOPINZHONG、LIUHUATIXI、RUANHUAJIJUNYOUGUANXI。

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